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After the demise of the Second Triumvirate, Augustus restored the outward façade of the free Republic, with governmental power vested in the Roman Senate, the executive magistrates, and the legislative assemblies.In reality, however, he retained his autocratic power over the Republic as a military dictator.
He rejected the advice of some army officers to take refuge with the troops in Macedonia and sailed to Italy to ascertain whether he had any potential political fortunes or security.
He was born at Ox Head, a small property on the Palatine Hill, very close to the Roman Forum.
He was given the name Gaius Octavius Thurinus, his cognomen possibly commemorating his father's victory at Thurii over a rebellious band of slaves.
Julia died in 52 or 51 BC, and Octavius delivered the funeral oration for his grandmother.
In 46 BC, she consented for him to join Caesar in Hispania, where he planned to fight the forces of Pompey, Caesar's late enemy, but Octavius fell ill and was unable to travel.
His paternal great-grandfather Gaius Octavius was a military tribune in Sicily during the Second Punic War.